THE ROMAN DYNASTIES OF ROME & CONSTANTINOPLE

284AD-324 AD
THE TETRARCHY - DIOCLETIAN
THE EMPERORS OF THE TETRARCHY 284AD - 324 AD
Diocletian decided that the empire was too large for one man to rule effectively. The Tetrarchy, or "rule of four", was a reform of the Roman imperial government two Augusti and two Caesars. This was a total change of the princeps system begun by the emperor Augustus. Diocletian, changed the position of Roman emperor from one cloaked in republican virtue and office into a full Eastern-style monarchy.

 

 

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The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the Crisis Years 235-284. He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy,"

 

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DIOCLETIAN 284-324 AD

CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 22 DECEMBER,244 AD, SALONA
RULE 20 YEARS November 20, 284 AD – May 1, 305 AD

Proclaimed Emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus,
adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 AD
3 December 311 AD Abdicated; died of natural causes in Aspalatos
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MAXIMIAN 286-305 AD

CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 250 AD, SIRMIUM PANNONIA,
RULE 19 YEARS 1 APRIL, 286 AD – 1 MAY 305 AD
Adopted as senior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286
310 AD Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius;
captured by Constantine I and committed suicide at his behes

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CONSTANTIUS I 305 AD-306 AD

CAESAR GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 31 MARCH 250AD, DARDANIA MOESIA
RULE 1 YEAR 2 MONTHS 1 MAY, 305 AD – 25 JULY, 306 AD
Adopted as junior co-emperor Caesar and heir by Maximian in 293 AD .
Natural causes
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GALERIUS 305 AD -311 AD

CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 260 AD, FELIX ROMULIANA, MOSESIA SUPERIO
RULE 6 YEARS I MAY 305 AD – MAY 311 AD
Adopted as junior co-emperor Caesar and heir by Diocletian in 293 AD.

Natural causes
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SEVERUS II 306 AD - 307 AD

CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 250 ?
RULE 1 YEAR SUMMER 306 AD - APRIL 307 AD
Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Constantius I Chlorus in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus in 306;
opposed by Maxentius and Constantine I
.
September 16, 307 AD Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)
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CONSTANTINE 306 AD - 337 AD

CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS VALERIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 27 FEBRUARY 272 AD, NAISSUS, MOESIA SUPERIOR
RULE 31 YEARS 25 JULY 306 AD - 22 MAY 337 AD
Son of Constantius I Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306 AD; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 AD by Maximian after death of Severus II; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 AD Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD
Natural causes
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MAXIMIAN 306 AD-310 AD (2 TIME)

CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 250 AD, SIRMIUM PANNONIA,
RULE 19 YEARS 1 APRIL, 286 AD – 1 MAY 305 AD
Maximian led the ceremony that proclaimed Severus as Caesar, within two years he was sufficiently dissatisfied to support his son's rebellion against the new regime. During Constantine's war with Maxentius (son of Maximian), Maximian's image was purged from all public places. However, after Constantine ousted and killed Maxentius, Maximian's image was rehabilitated, and he was deified
310 AD Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius;
captured by Constantine I and committed suicide at his behes

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MAXENTIUS 306 AD - 312 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 278 AD?
RULE 6 YEARS 8 October 306 AD – October 28, 312 AD
Son of Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius I Chlorus, in opposition to Severus and Constantine I,
made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 AD after the death of Severus
.
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Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I.
Christian tradition, claims that Constantine fought under the labarum in that battle, revealed to him in a dream

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MAXIMINUS DAIA II 311 AD - 313 AD

CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 20 NOVEMBER 270 AD, DACIA AURELIANA
RULE 2 YEARS May 1, 311 AD – July/August 313 AD
Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius I) in 311 AD..
July/August 313 AD
Defeated in civil war against Licinius I; probably committed suicide thereafter
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LICINIUS 308 AD - 324 AD

CAESAR GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 250 AD, FELIX ROMULIANA, MOESIA SUPERIOR
RULE 16 YEARS 11 NORVEMBER, 308 AD -18 SEPTEMBER 324 AD
Son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308 AD, in opposition to Maxentius;
became Augustus in the east in 311 AD after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus II);
defeated Maximinus in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313 AD;
(appointed Valerius Valens in 317 AD, and Martinian in 324 AD as western Augustus,
in opposition to Constantine, both being executed within weeks)
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Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 AD and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year
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