The ROMAN CIVILIZATION
IMAGES OF THE ROMAN CIVILIZATION
The Roman Town of Glanum
in southern france provence
In 49 BC Julius Caesar captured Marseille, and after a period of destructive civil wars, the Romanization of Provence and Glanum began.
In 27 BC the Emperor Augustus created the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, and in this province Glanum was given the title of Oppidum Latinum, which gave residents the civil and political status of citizens of Rome. A triumphal arch was built outside the town between 10 and 25 BC, near the end of the reign of Augustus, (the first such arch to be built in Gaul), as well as an impressive mausoleum of the Julii family, both still standing.
In the 1st century BC, under the Romans, the city built a new forum, temples, and a curved stone arch dam, Glanum Dam, the oldest known dam of its kind, and an aqueduct, which supplied water for the towns fountains and public baths.
Glanum was not as prosperous as the Roman colonies of Arles, Avignon and Cavaillon, but by the 2nd century AD it was wealthy enough to build impressive shrines to the Emperors, to enlarge the forum, and to have extensive baths and other public buildings clad in marble.
The Mausoleum of the Julii
The Mausoleum of the Julii, located across the Via Domitia, to the north of, and just outside the city entrance, dates to about 40 BCE, and is one of the best preserved mausoleums of the Roman era.
The mausoleum, 18 meters high, can be found at the beginning of the road to Arles and Nîmes, and is dated to 30 to 20 BCE. The dedicatee was a warrior in the armies of Julius Caesar and/or the emperor Augustus, who awarded him with the Roman citizenship. The inscription says that the tomb was erected by Sextus, Lucius and Marcus Julius, the sons of Gaius, and dedicated to their father and grandfather; hence its alternative name, Cenotaph of the Julii. The fourfold arch reminds of a triumphal arch, a fitting symbol for a warrior.
The Triumphal Arch OF glanum
The triumphal arch stood just outside the northern gate of the city, next to the mausoleum and was the visible symbol of Roman power and authority. It was built near the end of the reign of Augustus Caesar (who died in 14 AD). The upper portion of the arch, including the inscription, are missing.
The sculptures decorating the arch illustrated both the civilization of Rome and the dire fate of her enemies.
The northern relief of the Mausoleumshows an unidentified cavalry fight.
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A Roman road paved with blocks of stone ran from north to south through the center of Glanum. Under the street was a water conduit which carried away rainwater and sewage.
One of the most striking scenes on the arch of Glanum is a native woman who laments her fate together with a chained man