Men of Rome
and the people in the story of rome
The traditional Roman
concept of virtue called for old-fashioned morality, a serious, responsible public bearing, and courageous endurance in the field of battle.Roman cultural identity was also structured around a profound respect for family and ancestry, and a principal funerary practice involved the public display of portraits of distinguished ancestors at the funeral of family members.
Cincinnatus the hero In the space of just two weeks he had raised an army, crushed his enemy and laid down his office to return to farming. It is these events that were canonized as a moral example of how a Roman nobleman ought to behave. Such austerity and modesty were looked upon as characteristics of the ideal Roman citizen. It was thought that a Roman should only serve his country; not wish to have it serve him. Cincinnatus was a hero who did his duty and no more.
Unknow Roman 70 BC
Lucius Junius Brutus
The founder and first consul of the Roman Republic,a legendary figure, who is held to have ousted the despotic Etruscan king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus from Rome in 509 and then to have founded the Roman Republic. He is said to have been elected to the first consulship The founder and first consul of the Roman Republic,a legendary figure, who is held to have ousted the despotic Etruscan king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus from Rome in 509 and then to have founded the Roman Republic. He is said to have been elected to the first consulship The founder and first consul of the Roman Republic,a legendary figure, who is held to have ousted the despotic Etruscan king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus from Rome in 509 and then to have founded the Roman Republic. He is said to have been elected to the first consulship
157 BC – 86 BC
Roman general and statesman He held the office of Consul an unprecedented 7 times during his career. He was also noted for his important reforms of the Roman Armies, authorising recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipulus military formations, and reorganising the structure of the Legios into separate Cohortes.His life and career were significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire.Civil war the struggle between Marius and Sulla led to the deaths of numerous distinguished Roman senators, equestrians thousands of Roman soldiers and citizens. It set a precedent for the civil wars to come that led to the destruction of the Republica and thus to the establishment of the principate system of the Empire.
236 BC – 183 BC
Renowned as one of the greatest generals, not only of ancient Rome, but of all time. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama, one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus. At an early age, Scipio joined the Roman struggle (because his father and uncle died in war) against Carthage in the Second Punic War After his rapid success in conquering Hispania, and with the idea of striking a blow at Carthage in Africa .The two generals met on a plain between Carthage and Utica on October 19, 202 BC, at the Battle of Zama. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations failed.
138 BC – 78 BC
Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. The Senate reneged at Marius's intrigues, Sulla unconstitutionally marched his armies into Rome and defeated Marius in battle.He revived the office of dictator, and used his powers limit tribune power. Sulla's ascension was also marked by political purges in proscriptions. Sulla's decision to seize power - ironically enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome - permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Later leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attai
Marcus Licinius Crassus
115 BC – 53 BC
was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Amassing an enormous fortune during his life, Crassus is considered the wealthiest man in Roman history, and among the richest men in all history, if not the wealthiest.Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus,A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar and Pompey in the unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.Crassus used Syria as the launchpad for a military campaign against the Parthian Empire, Crassus' campaign was a failure, resulting in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae.Crassus' death permanently unraveled the alliance between Caesar and Pompey. Within four years of Crassus' death, Caesar would cross the Rubicon and begin a civil war against Pompey and the Optimates.
Pompey the Great
106 - 48 B.C.
Pompey was was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. Pompey's career seems to have been driven by desire for military glory and disregard for traditional political constraints.In a very common political move at the time, Pompey married Sulla's step-daughter Mucia TertiaHe managed to end the uprising in Spain took credit for defeating the forces of Spartacus, and rid Rome of the pirate menace within three months. When he invaded the country of Pontus, the Mithridatic wars were finally over, Pompey could take credit. Pompey also took control of Syria in 64 B.C., and captured Jerusalem. When he returned to Rome in 61, he held a triumph. The First Triumvirate Along with Crassus and Julius Caesar, Eventually, Pompey and Caesar faced each other as enemy commanders after Caesar, defying orders from Rome, crossed the Rubicon. Caesar was the victor of their battle at Pharsalus. Later, Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was killed and his head cut off so it could be sent to Caesar.
83 BC – 30 BC
Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Octavian, Julius Caesar's adopted son. Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination. Antony joined forces with Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian.Octavian would rule the West, Antony the East and Lepidus Africa. In 41 B.C. Antony began an affair with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, who had been Caesar’s lover. Meanwhile Octavian grew in strength, eliminating Lepidus from the triumvirate. In 32 B.C. Antony divorced Octavia. In retaliation, Octavian declared war, not on Antony but on Cleopatra. The brilliant naval attacks of Octavian’s general Agrippa defeated Antony and Cleopatra.As Octavian entered Alexandria, both Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide..
106 BC – 43 BC
Roman statesman, orator, and writer. As an orator and writer Cicero established a model for Latin prose; his surviving works include speeches, treatises on rhetoric, philosophical works, and letters. As praetor, a judicial officer of great power at this time, in 66 he made his first important political speech, when, against Quintus Lutatius Catulus and leading Optimates (the conservative element in the Roman Senate),When Cicero stood for the consulship of 63, he reached the highest political office at the earliest legal age, a remarkable achievement for a complete outsider. His consulship involved him in a number of political problems which culminated in the conspiracy of Catiline. He was a supporter of Pompey against Julius Caesar. Cicero’s importance in the history of philosophy is as a transmitter of Greek thought. In the course of this role, he gave Rome and, therefore, Europe its philosophical vocabulary.
114 BC – 50 BC
A Roman Optimate, and orator. He was consul in 69 BC . At the age of nineteen he made his first speech at the bar. the optimates. During Lucius Cornelius Sulla's dictatorship the courts of law were under the control of the Senate. Hortensius may have been indebted for much of his success many of his clients were the governors of provinces which they were accused of having plundered. Such men were sure to find themselves brought before a friendly, not to say a corrupt, tribunal . In the year before his consulship he came into collision with Cicero in the case of Gaius Verres, and from that time his supremacy at the bar was over. According to Cicero his oratory was of the Asiatic style, a florid rhetoric, better to hear than to read. Even though, his action were highly artificial, and his manner of folding his toga was noted by tragic actors. In 56, Hortensius admired Cato the Younger, Cato divorced Marcia, Marcia, who bore him an heir. After Hortensius' death in 50 BC, she inherited his estate this caused a minor scandal, as after Hortensius' death she remarried Cato, making both of them rich.
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
consul 54 BC.
An enemy of Julius Caesar and a strong supporter of the aristocratic party in the late Roman Republic.He married Porcia, the sister of Cato the Younger, and in his aedileship supported the latter in his proposals against bribery at elections, The senate appointed him to succeed Caesar as governor of the province of further Gaul, and on the march of Caesar into Italy in 49 BC, he was the only one of the aristocratic party who showedcourage. He threw himself into Corfinium with about twenty cohorts, expecting to be supported by Pompey; but as the latter did nothing to assist him, he was compelled by his own troops to surrender to Caesar. . He was killed just after the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, in which he commanded the left wing against Publius Sulla. He was struck down trying to escape after the city had fallen. According to Cicero's assertion in the second Philippic, Mark Antony himself struck the blow that killed him. Ahenobarbus remained firm to his political principles, but was unscrupulous in the means he employed to maintain them.
Roman republican general, Labienus took the side of the pro-republic conspirators and fought to restore the republic under Gaius Cassius Longinus. After Brutus and Cassius were defeated at Philippi, Labienus joined the Parthians. When the Parthians invaded the Roman territories in 40 BC they were led by Pacorus and Labienus. The successes of the two armies were startling: Labienus took all of Asia Minor, Pacorus The Parthian Prince all of Syria and Palestine. For nearly two years all the western provinces of the Achaemenids remained in Parthian hands. the invasion to have been a carefully constructed plan designed to satisfy the Parthian desire to possess Syria and at the same time allow Labienus to pursue his Republican ideals in Asia Minor. the Parthian successes were not long-lasting. In 39 BC, a Roman counterattack under Publius Ventidius in Asia Minor defeated Labienus, who was subsequently captured and executed. One year later Pacorus too was killed in Syria.
L. Livineius Regulus
43 BC to 38 BC
A commander in Julius Cæsar's armies first seen in 46 BC as Prefect, he served as moneyer in Rome from 43 BC to 38 BC, after which he is lost to history. The responsibility of minting coins in Republican Rome was primarily that of the tresviri auro argento aere flando feriundo (“the three men for casting and striking of gold, silver and bronze” ), an official title often shortened to IIIviri monetales
“Good fortune to D. Lucretius” (in Latin) A riot that took place in Pompeii in the first century (59 CE). This is one of those rare cases when we have more than one source regarding a violent incident involving associations, one of them being a painting from Pompeii. Which person being talked about is unkown because of the hunderd year difference.
Gaius Julius Caesar
100 - 44 BC
A Roman statesman, general, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns In Europe.Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions After a five-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Illyria, Greece Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates and became Dictator)of Rome
Cato the Younger
95 BC – 46 BC
To distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. As tribune elect in 63, he prosecuted for electoral bribery one of the men who defeated Catiline for the consulship, exempting the other because he was a relative. Cato's fiery speech on December 5 led the Senate to vote for the execution of the Catilinarian conspirators who had been caught in Rome after an unsuccessful attempt at seizing control of the state.A noted orator, he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Julius Caesar),When Caesar crushed the Pompeians in the Battle of Thapsus in 46 and approached the city, Cato committed suicide.
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
64/65 BC – 12 BC
A Roman statesman, general and architect.He was a close friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to Octavian and was responsible for the construction of some of the most notable buildings in the history of Rome and for important military victories, most notably at the Battle of Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. As a result of these victories Octavian became the first Roman Emperor Augustus.Agrippa deserved the honours Augustus heaped upon him. It is conceivable that without Agrippa, Octavian would never have become emperor. Rome remembered him for his generosity in attending to aqueducts, sewers, and baths; and in the mid-20s he completed the celebrated Pantheon.
Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger
85 BC – 42 BC
When civil war broke out in 49 BC between Pompey and Caesar, Brutus followed his old enemy and present leader of the Optimates, Pompey. When the Battle of Pharsalus began, Caesar ordered his officers to take Brutus prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily Brutus was pardoned by Caesar.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March March 15, 44 BC.Which lead to the end of the roman rebulic.
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
42 BC - 23 BC
The eldest son of Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a former Roman consul, and of Octavia Minor, sister of Caesar Augustus, and hence was Augustus' nephew. In 25 BC, just two years prior to his death, Marcellus was married to Augustus' only daughter, Julia the Elder, Marcellus' ambitions are said to have brought him into conflict with Agrippa and others. Whether he died of an infectious disease, or food or other poisoning, or another ailment is uncertain. Augustus gave him a public burial after the customary eulogies, placing him in the tomb he was building. His mother Octavia built a library in his honor, and in naming a theatre of Marcellus
Nero Claudius Drusus
38 BC – 9 BC
Decimus Claudius Drusus also called Drusus Claudius Nero,Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the son of Livia Drusilla and the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus. He was also younger brother of the Emperor Tiberius, father to both the Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, He launched the first major Roman campaigns and began the conquest of Germania, becoming the first Roman general to reach the Weser and Elbe rivers. He was prosecuting the work of subjugation when he fell from his horse, lingering on for a month after the accident, by which point Tiberius had joined him. His family was granted the hereditary honorific title "Germanicus", which was given to his eldest son before passing to his youngest.
Dusus Julius Caesar
13 BC – 23 AD
Drusus was named after his paternal uncle the general Drusus the Elder, who was Tiberius' younger brother..Drusus showed promise with both military and politics. In AD 13, he was made a permanent member of the Senate committee Augustus had founded Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia.In 15 he became a consul. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 Tiberius' adopted son Germanicus died making Drusus the new heir; By 23 it looked as if Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, would succeed Tiberius as emperor. For reasons of self-survival, that with Livilla as his accomplice he poisoned her husband. If Drusus was indeed murdered, no suspicion, having as he did a reputation for heavy drinking .Sejanus fell in 31. Sejanus' former wife Apicata committed suicide, but not before addressing a letter to Tiberius claiming that Drusus had been poisoned, with the complicity of Livilla..
15 BC – 19 AD
Was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty By AD 4 he was adopted as Tiberius' son and heir, a prominent general of the early Roman Empire Germanicus' own campaigns in Germania made him famous after avenging the defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest and retrieving two of the three legionary eagles. Despite the successes enjoyed by his troops, Germanicus' Germania campaign lacked real strategic value. However, the campaign significantly healed the Roman psychological trauma from the Varus disaster, and greatly recovered Roman prestige. However, in leading his troops across the Rhine, without recourse to Tiberius, Tiberius sent him to Asia In an attempt to separate Germanicus from his troops and weaken his influence, Beloved by the people, he was widely considered to be the perfect Roman long after his death.
14 AD – 37 AD
Tiberius Heir to Augustus was one of the greatest Roman generals; his conquest of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and , parts of Germania, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. In 6 BC, on the verge of accepting command in the East and becoming the second most powerful man in Rome, Tiberius suddenly announced his withdrawal from politics and retired to Rhodes.Even so, he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him "the gloomiest of men." After the death of his son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, Tiberius became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD he removed himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian prefects Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. When Tiberius died, he was succeeded by his grand-nephew and adopted grandson, Caligula
19AD – 37 AD
Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning "the twin". His twin brother, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, died while still an infant in 23. His father and older cousins died, eliminated by the powerful praetorian prefect Sejanus.
The deaths of his cousins elevated Gemellus and his older cousin Gaius Caesar Caligula. As there was no formal mechanism for succession,upon which much of the Roman state had come to depend. According to Suetonius, Their removal allowed Gemellus and Caligula to be named joint-heirs by Tiberius in 35, a decision that ultimately resulted in Caligula assuming power and having Gemellus killed, in late 37 or early 38.
10 BC - 54 AD
A Roman emperor a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.Claudius had ascended the throne almost by accident in A.D. 41 following the assassination of Caligula, and he would spend the majority of his 13-year reign dodging murder plots and tangling with the Roman senate. Though often chided for carrying a limp and other physical ailments, he proved a capable administrator. Claudius undertook the conquest of Britain. He visited the island for 16 days, to preside over the capture of Colchester. Suetonius and the other ancient authors accused Claudius of being dominated by women and wives, of being uxorious, and of being a womanizer. Claudius married four times, after two failed betrothals.The consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius was murdered by poison – possibly contained in mushrooms or on a feather – and died in the early hours of 13 October 54 AD.
L. Cornelius Pusio
72-73AD consul ?
Bronze portrait of L. Cornelius Pusio, Roman Commander (identified by a dedicatory inscription; CIL 6.31706, now in the Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme Museum).From Rome: Via IV Novembre, originally set up in the house of the commander..Dated by the Museo Nazionale to the period of Claudius (r. 41-54 CE). Perhaps later? Cornelius family, Cornelia Gens, was, according a very old and noble Roman family, which consisted of both plebeians and patrician and from this branch originated many of Rome's most important body and influential men. Lucius Cornelius Pusio was Legat at the 16th legion under the Emperor Augustus and we know his name from a bronze inscription found on Quirinale hill where one believes that he has owned a manor house, Actually it was his full name Lucius Cornelius Pusio Annius Messalla and he was akin to several powerful families in ancient Rome:
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo
7 AD - – 67 AD
Corbulo's early career is unknown but he was suffect consul in 39 AD during the reign of Caligula, after Caligula's assassination, the new Emperor Claudius made him commander of the armies in Germania Inferior. Named governor of the province of Asia. Nero sent him to deal with the Armenian question In 58 he invaded and installed Tigranes, a Roman client, on the throne. When Tigranes provoked a new attack by the Parthians in 61, Nero sent the general Lucius Caesennius Paetus to Armenia and ordered Corbulo to defend Syria. Paetus, suffered a severe defeat at Rhandeia in 62 AD. Command was again entrusted to Corbulo. In 63 AD, with a strong army, he crossed the Euphrates. Tiridates declined to give battle and arranged a peace. After two failed plots by noblemen and senators, including Corbulo's son-in-law Nero summoned Corbulo, on his arrival at Cenchreae, the port of Corinth, messengers from Nero met Corbulo and ordered him to commit suicide
Lucius Annaeus Seneca
4 BC – 65 AD
Born in Cordoba in Spain, and raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy and was astatesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. Seneca remains one of the few popular Roman philosophers from the period. From 54 to 62AD, Seneca acted as Nero's advisor, together with the praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus. Seneca's influence was said to have been especially strong in the first year. In AD 65, Seneca was caught up in the aftermath of the Pisonian conspiracy, a plot to kill Nero. Although it is unlikely that Seneca conspired, Nero ordered him to kill himself. Seneca followed tradition by severing several veins in order to bleed to die Seneca remains one of the few popular Roman philosophers from the period. Seneca’s tendency to engage in illicit affairs with married women and his rather un-Stoic proclivity for hypocrisy and flattery, have sullied his reputation somewhat.
37 AD -68 AD
Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. Nero's early reign as being strongly influenced by his mother, Agrippina, his tutor Seneca. Over time, Nero became progressively more powerful, freeing himself of his advisers and eliminating rivals to the throne. Nero was unsatisfied with his marriages and relationships with his mother Agrippina, Octavia, Poppaea, and Statilia Messalina who survived the fall of his reign.Nero enjoyed driving a one-horse chariot, singing to the lyre and poetry. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68 the revolt of Vindex and Galba lead to the Senate had declared Nero a public enemy. He prepared himself for suicide not bring himself to take his own life and forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos, to perform the task. With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty ended.
98 AD – 117 AD
Nerva naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor, allegedly solely on Trajan's outstanding military merits It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia .Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent. He is also known for overseeing extensive public building programs and social welfare policies, one of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Born in the city of Italica Spain, Trajan’s was the first roman emperor from out side of Italy.Ancient sources on Trajan's personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the Younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man.
117 to 138.AD
Roman Emperor was the fourteenth Emperor of Rome Trajan's adoption of Hadrian and is known as the third of the Five Good Emperors During his reign, Hadrian travelled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece his tastes for all things Greek became a trademark of his. The spent extensive amounts of time with the military.The beautiful Antinousa young boy who was destined to become the emperor's beloved. The most distinctive aspect of Hadrian's reign was the fact that the Emperor was to spend more than half of it outside of Italy ..Upon his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia,
Little is known of Antinous' life, although it is known that he was born in Claudiopolis Greek youth and a favourite, or lover, of the Roman emperor Hadrian. He had become the favourite of Hadrian by 128, when he was taken on a tour of the Empire as part of Hadrian's personal retinue. 130AD, as they were part of a flotilla going along the Nile, Antinous died amid mysterious circumstances. Following his death, Hadrian deified Antinous and founded an organised cult devoted to his worship that spread throughout the Empire.He was deified being worshiped in both the Greek East and Latin West, sometimes as a god and sometimes merely as a hero
Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus
125 AD - 193AD
A general under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Pompeianus distinguished himself during Rome's Parthian and Marcomannic Wars. A member of the imperial family due to his marriage to Lucilla, a daughter of Marcus Aurelius. Though offered the imperial throne three times, he refused to claim the title for himself. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 AD, Commodus,was proclaimed Emperor. The relationship between the young emperor and the experienced officer quickly deteriorated. In 182, Commodus was assassinated in 192 AD. Pompeianus returned to Rome Pertinax, who was the Urban Prefect offered the throne to Pompeianus, but he declined. Pertinax became Emperor
Lucius Aelius Caesar
101 AD – 138 AD
Intended successor became the adopted son and intended successor of Roman Emperor Hadrian AD but never attained the throne. After a year's stationing on the Danube frontier, Aelius returned to Rome to make an address to the senate on the first day of 138. The night before the speech, however, he grew ill, and died of a haemorrhage late the next day Aelius was born with the name Lucius Ceionius Commodus, and later called Lucius Aelius Caesar. Hadrian selected Aurelius Antoninus as his new successor As part of Hadrian's terms, Antoninus adopted both Lucius Aelius's son (properly called Lucius Ceionius Commodus the Younger) and Hadrian's great-nephew by marriage, Marcus Aurelius
253 - 268 AD
Roman Emperor Gallienus ruled an empire that was disintegrating under pressures from foreign invaders The secession of Gaul and Palmyra . He certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader fighting many barbarian invasions and serious rebellions. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler. He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses, that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders and paved the way for Diocletian and future reforms.
270 - 275 AD
Roman Emperor During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west,He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia. By reuniting the empire, which had virtually disintegrated under the pressure of invasions and internal revolts, he earned his self-adopted title restitutor orbis(“restorer of the world”
Roman Emperor .The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire .Constantine—as possibly the first Christian emperor Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.
As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire .Foundation of Constantinople a new Eastern capital should represent the integration of the East into the Roman Empire as a whole.
During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history, because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman" A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states.His building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia. A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour.
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